Attawapiskat First Nation
Click here to download a PDF version of this webpage Summary The widely accepted mantle plume model e. Geological and geophysical data from the Deccan provide no support for the plume model and arguably undermine it altogether Sheth, a ,b. The interplay of several intersecting continental rift zones in India is apparently responsible for the roughly circular outcrop of the Deccan. Published Ar-Ar age data for the Lakshadweep-Chagos Ridge basalts have been seriously questioned Baksi, , , and geochemical data suggest that they likely represent post-shield volcanism Sheth et al. I relate CFB volcanism to continental rifting, which often but not always evolves into full-fledged sea-floor spreading Sheth, a , a. Non-plume, plate tectonic models are capable of explaining the Deccan in all its greatness. The 1, m-thick exposed section through the Deccan basalt pile at Mahabaleshwar, Sahyadri Western Ghats region. Photo by Hetu Sheth. These papers are in unanimous agreement on two issues: Nevertheless, the following observations and deductions suggest that the plume model is not valid for the Deccan Sheth, a , b , a.
Quotations about Evolution
Can science prove the age of the earth? No scientific method can prove the age of the earth and the universe, and that includes the ones we have listed here. Further, it has to be assumed that the clock was never disturbed. There is no independent natural clock against which those assumptions can be tested. For example, the amount of cratering on the moon, based on currently observed cratering rates, would suggest that the moon is quite old.
Articles home page Creation vs. Evolution 0. Introduction and table of contents The following is an organized presentation on the creation vs. evolution controversy.
Inteendeel, meeste sillabusse in skole en universiteite aanvaar die konsep van evolusie as die wetenskaplike basis vir die verstaan van die fisiese kosmos soos ons dit vandag ken. A gradual process in which something changes into a different and usually more complex or better form. See Synonyms at development. The process of developing.
Change in the genetic composition of a population during successive generations, as a result of natural selection acting on the genetic variation among individuals, and resulting in the development of new species. The historical development of a related group of organisms; phylogeny. A movement that is part of a set of ordered movements. Mathematics The extraction of a root of a quantity. The gradual process by which the present diversity of plant and animal life arose from the earliest and most primitive organisms, which is believed to have been continuing for the past million years.
Accuracy of Fossils and Dating Methods
Important We believe any unbiased reader will realize that we were fair with our treatment of the two models in the table above. Yet, although the theory of evolution matches the facts in some cases, evolution is still an unproven theory. By now, you may believe it should be your first choice also. Unlike many others that preceded us, we attempted to find a clear defense of evolution for two reasons: To keep from being accused of bias.
I looked and looked for the methods explained and the data summarized in one place that leads scientists to confidence in the age of the earth.
The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years.
We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods. We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points.
Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate. However, this causes a problem for those who believe based on the Bible that life has only existed on the earth for a few thousand years, since fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be over million years old by radiometric methods, and some fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be billions of years old.
If these dates are correct, this calls the Biblical account of a recent creation of life into question. After study and discussion of this question, I now believe that the claimed accuracy of radiometric dating methods is a result of a great misunderstanding of the data, and that the various methods hardly ever agree with each other, and often do not agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found. I believe that there is a great need for this information to be made known, so I am making this article available in the hopes that it will enlighten others who are considering these questions.
Even the creationist accounts that I have read do not adequately treat these issues. At the start, let me clarify that my main concern is not the age of the earth, the moon, or the solar system, but rather the age of life, that is, how long has life existed on earth. Many dating methods seem to give about the same ages on meteorites. Thus radiometric dating methods appear to give evidence that the earth and meteorites are old, if one accepts the fact that decay rates have been constant.
Problems with the U-Pb Radioisotope Dating Methods—1. Common Pb
References Generic Radiometric Dating The simplest form of isotopic age computation involves substituting three measurements into an equation of four variables, and solving for the fourth. The equation is the one which describes radioactive decay: The variables in the equation are: Pnow – The quantity of the parent isotope that remains now.
This is measured directly. Porig – The quantity of the parent isotope that was originally present.
RADIOMETRIC DATING. he question of the ages of the Earth and its rock formations and features has fascinated philosophers, theologians, and scientists for centuries, primarily because the answers put our lives in temporal perspective.
These formations and therefore the river and community are called chat-a-wa-pis-shkag in Swampy Cree. The overall purpose of the project was to help the regional Council and its associations develop a strategy for natural resource co-management, self-government, and sustainable regional development. Their results published in , showed “that geographically extensive land use for hunting and fishing persists in the Mushkegowuk region, some km2.
Although the First Nations control only km2 0. The town or hamlet of Attawapiskat now covers 1. It is in the James Bay drainage basin. It is in the Kenora District which is in the extreme north of Ontario. It is normal for the river to rise 1 or 2 metres. The community has experienced partial and complete flooding. It is thought to have formed about million years ago in the Jurassic period when the North American Plate moved westward over a centre of upwelling magma called the New England hotspot , also referred to as the Great Meteor hotspot.
How Old is the Earth
Primary source references As a preface to this document, I want to point out that it is a shame that we have to continue to refute the same arguments that evolutionists keep bringing up over and over again in their attempts to argue against the fact of creation, which fact has been well established since the day the earth was created ex nihilo several thousand years ago. It is also a shame that the masses have bought all this based on some circular reasoning about fossils, where fossils tend to be found buried, similarities between various life forms, the presence of certain decay products in rocks, and other inherently speculative arguments about the past, based on phenomena that exist in the present.
If I hope to accomplish anything, it will be to simply encourage critical thinking.
The Attawapiskat First Nation (/ ˌ æ t ə ˈ w ɑː p ɪ s k æ t / Cree: ᐋᐦᑕᐙᐱᐢᑲᑐᐎ ᐃᓂᓂᐧᐊᐠ Āhtawāpiskatowi ininiwak, “People of the parting of the rocks”; unpointed: ᐊᑕᐗᐱᐢᑲᑐᐎ ᐃᓂᓂᐧᐊᐠ) is an isolated First Nation located in Kenora District in northern Ontario, Canada, at .
Outlook Other Abstract U-Pb radioisotope dating is now the absolute dating method of first choice among geochronologists, especially using the mineral zircon. A variety of analytical instruments have also now been developed using different micro-sampling techniques coupled with mass spectrometers, thus enabling wide usage of U-Pb radioisotope dating. However, problems remain in the interpretation of the measured Pb isotopic ratios to transform them into ages.
Among them is the presence of non-radiogenic Pb of unknown composition, often referred to as common or initial Pb. There is also primordial Pb that the earth acquired when it formed, its isotopic composition determined as that of troilite in the Canyon Diablo iron meteorite. Subsequently new crustal rocks formed via partial melts from the mantle.
So the Pb isotope ratios measured in these rocks today must be interpreted before their U-Pb ages can be calculated. Various methods have been devised to determine this initial or common Pb, but all involve making unprovable assumptions. Zircon does incorporate initial Pb when it crystallizes. The amount of Pb cannot be measured independently and accurately.
It cannot be demonstrated that the initial Pb only consisted of Pb atoms. It cannot be proven that the Pb in apparently cogenetic U- or Th-free minerals is only initial Pb, and that it is identical to the initial Pb in the mineral being dated.
How accurate are Carbon-14 and other radioactive dating methods?
USGS Paleontology glossary Acritarch microscopic organic structure from any of a number of organisms; common during the Proterozoic. Adaptive radiation, evolutionary radiation the rapid expansion and diversification of a group of organisms as they fill unoccupied ecological niches , evolving into new species. Age of Mammals term found in popular books on evolutionary systematics for the Cenozoic era, beginning with the Paleocene Epoch when following the K—T end Cretaceous mass extinction , mammals underwent a huge evolutionary radiation and thus replaced reptiles as the dominant life on Earth.
The Age of Mammals has in turn been replaced by the Anthropocene or Age of Man, Holocene when humans dominate every conceivable environment and most other life forms apart from weedy species are suffering a mass extinction Yes, I know humans are also mammals, so technically speaking this is still the Age of Mammals, but I tend to think of the Age of Mammals as a period of flourishing biodiversity.
MAK Age of Reptiles term found in popular books on evolutionary systematics for the Permian through to Cretaceous periods but obviously originating with Victorian discoveries of “antediluvian monsters” , when reptiles first mammal-like reptiles , then archosaurs and marine reptiles were the dominant life on Earth. Paleontologist Edwin Colbert wrote a popular intelligent layperson book with the same title.
Inhoud. Inleiding. Wetenskapsfilosofie. Beperkinge van dateringsmetodes. Die probleem van ekstrapolasie. Probleme met huidige geologiese teorieë. Wetenskaplike getuienis vir ‘n vloed-gebeure.
Although they also posed new questions, the thousands of satellite photographs brought back from the Moon have permitted us to map its surface with greater accuracy than Earth could be mapped a few decades ago. We now have over kg of rocks from nine places on the Moon, rocks that have been analyzed by hundreds of scientists from many different countries.
Data from a variety of experiments have revealed much about the Moon’s deep interior. As it turns out, the Moon is truly a whole new world, with rocks and surface features that provide a record of events that occurred during the first billion years of the solar system. This record is not preserved on Earth because all rocks formed during the first million years of Earth’s history were recycled back into the interior.
The importance of the Moon in studying the principles of geology is that it provides an insight into the basic mechanics of planetary evolution and events that occurred early in the solar system. Much of the knowledge we have of how planets are born and of the events that transpired during the early part of their histories has been gained from studies of the Moon.
At the outset, it is important to note that we assume that the physical and chemical laws that govern nature are constant. For example, we use observations about how chemical reactions occur today, such as the combination of oxygen and hydrogen at specific temperatures and pressures to produce water, and infer that similar conditions produced the same results in the past.